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Regulation and control

2014

Australian National Council on Drugs (2014)

Mandatory treatment: position paper.

Canberra: Australian National Council on Drugs

Brady M (2014)

Law reforming lawyers and Aboriginal social controls: the case of the Western Australian Aboriginal communities act.

Australian Indigenous Law Review; 17(1): 38-46

Brady M (2014)

Lessons from a history of beer canteens and licensed clubs in Indigenous Australian communities.

Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research

This discussion paper aims to provide some historical depth to the latest resurgence of interest in the idea that alcoholic drinks should be made available in licensed canteens or clubs in discrete Aboriginal communities.

The paper traces the social and policy changes that created a context within which it was thought that rationed sales of alcohol in home communities would encourage responsible drinking practices among Indigenous drinkers.

Such experiments followed closely on the repeal of Aboriginal prohibition in the Northern Territory, South Australia and Queensland.

The paper also discusses what went wrong with these establishments and makes suggestions for the future.

Abstract adapted from Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research

Buckley T (2014)

A criminal shift: alcohol regulation in the Northern Territory.

Indigenous Law Bulletin; 8(12): 20-23

Clough AR, Fitts MS, Robertson J, Shakeshaft A, Miller A, Doran CM, Muller R, Ypinazar V, Martin D, McDermott R, Sanson-Fisher R, Towle S, Margolis SA, West C (2014)

Study protocol - alcohol management plans (AMPs) in remote Indigenous communities in Queensland: their impacts on injury, violence, health and social indicators and their cost-effectiveness.

BMC Public Health; 14: 15

Retrieved 9 January 2014 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-15

De Bortoli L (2014)

Child removal in child protection practice: comparing structured professional judgement and actuarial risk assessment instruments.

Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Monash University: Melbourne

Alcohol management plan minimum standards: frequently asked questions (2014)

Department of Social Services

This factsheet describes the use of Alcohol management plans in Indigenous communities. Information is provided on:

  • what Alcohol management plans are
  • how Alcohol management plans benefit the community
  • how communities can be supported to develop Alcohol management plans
  • what are the minimum standards
  • how communities and government can make sure plans are working
  • alcohol restrictions in relation to Alcohol management plans.

Abstract adapted from Department of Social Services

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (2014)

Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory: six-monthly progress report 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2013.

Canberra: Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

2013

Aboriginal Peak Organisations of the Northern Territory (2013)

Not under the influence of evidence: a sober critique of the NT Alcohol Mandatory Treatment Bill: APO NT Submission on the NT Alcohol Mandatory Treatment Bill.

Canberra: National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation

Anthony T, Blagg H (2013)

STOP in the name of who's law? Driving and the regulation of contested space in Central Australia.

Social and Legal Studies; 22(1): 43-66

Australian National Council on Drugs (2013)

Alcohol action plan: issues paper.

Canberra: Australian National Council on Drugs

Closing the Gap Clearinghouse (2013)

Diverting Indigenous offenders from the criminal justice system.

Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

Cussen T, Payne J, Marks D (2013)

Policing alcohol and illicit drug use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in metropolitan environments.

Canberra: National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund

Department of Families Housing Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (2013)

Closing the gap in the Northern Territory monitoring report: January to June 2012.

Canberra: Australian Government

Johnston L, Doyle J, Morgan B, Atkinson-Briggs S, Firebrace B, Marika M, Reilly R, Cargo M, Riley T, Rowley K (2013)

A review of programs that targeted environmental determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health; 10(8): 3518-3542

New South Wales Parliament General Purpose Standing Committee No 2 (2013)

Drug and alcohol treatment.

Sydney: Parliament of New South Wales

Northern Territory Government (2013)

Alcohol measures in the NT.

Retrieved 2013 from http://www.dob.nt.gov.au/gambling-licensing/liquor/liquor-restrictions/alcohol-measures/Pages/default.aspx

This website provides information on the different types of liquor restrictions in force across the Northern Territory (NT). An interactive map of the NT provides a snapshot of alcohol restrictions in specific communities.

Information is also provided on:

  • liquor restricted areas
  • photo identification system
  • offences under the liquor act.

Abstract adapted from Northern Territory Government

Alcohol protection orders (2013)

Northern Territory Police

This factsheet provides information for people in the Northern Territory about how an alcohol protection order (APO) can be issued, and what an APO prevents a person from doing.

It also includes information about penalties for breaking the condition of an APO and other frequently asked questions.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Smith K, Langton M, d’Abbs P, Room R, Chenhall R, Brown A (2013)

Alcohol management plans and related alcohol reforms.

Sydney: Indigenous justice clearinghouse

2012

Carragher N, Chalmers J (2012)

What are the options? Pricing and taxation policy reforms to redress excessive alcohol consumption and related harms in Australia.

Sydney: NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research

Clough AR, Jacups S, Robertson J, Rogerson B, Graham V (2012)

Listening to what Indigenous people in remote communities say about alcohol restrictions and cannabis use: “Good thing that the alcohol's gone, but the gunja has kept going” [letter].

Medical Journal of Australia; 197(5):

d'Abbs P (2012)

Problematizing alcohol through the eyes of the other: alcohol policy and Aboriginal drinking in the Northern Territory, Australia.

Contemporary Drug Problems; 39(3): 371-396

Drug and Alcohol Office WA (2012)

The impact of liquor restrictions in Kununurra and Wyndham: a twelve month review.

Perth: Drug and Alcohol Office WA

Drug and Alcohol Office WA (2012)

The impact of liquor restrictions in Kununurra and Wyndham: Six month review.

Perth: Drug and Alcohol Office WA

Entwhistle P, Entwhistle D (2012)

First review of alcohol and drugs (AOD) Indigenous communities project (2011-2014) May 2012.

Darwin: Amity Community Services

Gray D (2012)

Community-wide approaches to substance misuse.

In: Lee K, Freeburn B, Ella S, Miller W, Perry J, Conigrave K, eds. Handbook for Aboriginal alcohol and drug work. Sydney: University of Sydney: 331-342

This chapter is from the Handbook for Aboriginal alcohol and drug work and provides information for alcohol and other drug (AOD) workers on community-wide approaches to substance misuse, including:

  • engaging with communities to address drug and alcohol issues
  • what communities can do to prevent or limit drinking problems.

Abstract adapted from the University of Sydney

Gray D (2012)

Is the demand for alcohol in Indigenous Australian communities ‘price inelastic'?.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 31(6): 818–822

John Scougall Consulting Services (2012)

Keeping people safe: an evaluation of the Nyoongar Patrol Outreach Service.

Perth: Australian Policy Online

Kirby T (2012)

Blunting the legacy of alcohol abuse in Western Australia.

The Lancet; 379(9812): 207-208

Northern Territory Government (2012)

Enough is enough: alcohol reform report July 2011 to December 2011.

Darwin: Northern Territory Government

Northern Territory Government (2012)

Enough is enough: alcohol reform report July 2011 to end March 2012.

Darwin: Northern Territory Government

Office of the Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services (2012)

Office of the Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services report: June 2011 to August 2012.

Darwin: Office of the Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services

This is the first of two annual reports that examine the objectives, strategies and funding arrangements of agreements that form the basis of the partnership between the Commonwealth and Northern Territory (NT) governments aimed at closing the gap in living conditions and social outcomes for Aboriginal Territorians.

The geographies assessed in the report include; Territory growth towns, Community living areas, town camps, homelands, communities and outstations.

The report focuses on four major themes arising from the approach taken by governments in relation to Aboriginal people since the NT emergency response (NTER) commenced in 2007 and reflected in the Stronger futures arrangements proposed for the next ten years. These are:

  • transparency and accountability
  • the balance between the crisis and developmental aspects of initiatives under both the NTER and Stronger futures
  • the marginalisation of Aboriginal people in decision making and resource allocation
  • the lack of long-term planning and capacity development within Aboriginal towns, particularly the transfer of service delivery from Aboriginal organisations to the non-Indigenous, non-profit sector.
The report makes twelve recommendations in the following areas:population and mobility; one-stop shop business centres; accountability and transparency; prioritisation of investments; community safety; early childhood; education; youth services review; labour force participation; workforce development (housing); housing; and health (morgues).

Abstract adapted from Office of the Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services report

Senate Standing Committees on Community Affairs (2012)

Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory Bill 2011 and two related bills.

Canberra: Parliament of Australia

Senior k, William I, Chenhall R, Cunningham T, Nagel T, Loyd R, McMahon R (2012)

Developing successful diversionary schemes for youth from remote Aboriginal communities.

Canberra: Criminology Research Advisory Council

Symons M, Gray D, Chikritzhs T, Skov S, Saggers S, Boffa J, Low J (2012)

A longitudinal study of influences on alcohol consumption and related harm in Central Australia: with a particular emphasis on the role of price.

Perth, WA: National Drug Research Institute

This report outlines the findings of a study undertaken by the National Drug Research Institute in collaboration with the Central Australian Aboriginal Congress. The study examined the impact of various alcohol control measures on levels of alcohol consumption and related harm in Central Australia for the period 2000-2010. This report includes details on:

  • study aim and research methods
  • alcohol control measures
  • alcohol consumption
  • alcoholic beverage prices
  • health indicators
  • crime and public order.

The study found that imposing additional alcohol control measures has contributed significantly to the reduction of estimated per capita consumption in Central Australia. The study found that most effective measures have been those which indirectly increased the average price per litre of alcoholic beverages.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Walker E (2012)

Stronger futures alcohol regulation in the NT.

Indigenous Law Bulletin; 8(3): 20-23

Pilbara liquor restrictions (2012)

Western Australian Department of Racing Gaming and Liquor

These factsheets contain information on liquor restrictions in the Pilbara region of Western Australia (WA). The factsheets detail liquor restrictions, effective as at 8 October 2012, in the following Pilbara towns:

  • Dampier
  • Karratha
  • Kumarina
  • Marble Bar
  • Mardie
  • Newman
  • Nullagine
  • Onslow
  • Pannawonica
  • Paraburdoo
  • Pardoo
  • Point Samson
  • Port Hedland and South Hedland
  • Sandfire Roadhouse
  • Tom Price
  • Whim Creek
  • Wickham.
The restrictions were imposed by the Department of Racing, Gaming and Liquor WA, under section 64 of the Liquor Control Act 1988, in response to two reports submitted to the Director by WA Police and the West Pilbara Alcohol Management Group.

Abstract adapted from Department of Racing, Gaming and Liquor WA

2011

Breen C, Shakeshaft A, Slade T, Love S, D'Este C, Mattick RP (2011)

Do community characteristics predict alcohol-related crime?.

Alcohol and Alcoholism; 46(4): 464-470

Catto M (2011)

Alcohol use among Indigenous peoples: the harmful use of alcohol amongst Indigenous Australians.

The Chronicle; 20(1): 21

Crundall I (2011)

Alcohol management in Kakadu.

The Chronicle; 20(1): 13-14

d'Abbs PHN (2011)

Alcohol restrictions in Indigenous communities: necessary but not sufficient.

Medical Journal of Australia; 194(10): 507

Dingwall KM, Maruff P, Cairney S (2011)

Neuropsychological problems and alcohol availability appear to be key factors in continued heavy alcohol use by Aboriginal Australians.

Medical Journal of Australia; 194(1): 50-51

Duncan B (2011)

Restrictions reap rewards.

Of Substance; 9(3): 18-21

Education and Health Standing Committee (2011)

Alcohol restrictions in the Kimberley: a 'window of opportunity' for improved health, education, housing and employment.

Perth, WA: Parliament of Western Australia

Government of Western Australia Drug and Alcohol Office (2011)

The impact of liquor restrictions in Halls Creek: quantitative data 24 month review.

Perth, WA: Drug and Alcohol Office

Gray DA, Wilkes ET (2011)

Alcohol restrictions in Indigenous communities: an effective strategy if Indigenous-led.

Medical Journal of Australia; 194(10): 508

Harris M (2011)

Opinion: NTER evaluation 2011.

Melbourne: Concerned Australians

Hudson S (2011)

Alcohol restrictions in Indigenous communities and frontier towns.

St Leonards, NSW: Centre for Independent Studies

Margolis SA, Ypinazar VA, Muller R, Clough A (2011)

Increasing alcohol restrictions and rates of serious injury in four remote Australian Indigenous communities.

Medical Journal of Australia; 194(10): 503-506

Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services (2011)

Northern Territory Coordinator-General for Remote Services report #4 December 2010 to May 2011.

Darwin: Northern Territory Department of Housing, Local Government and Regional Services

Northern Territory Government (2011)

Enough is enough: alcohol reform report 20 October 2011.

Darwin: Northern Territory Government

Queensland Government (2011)

Mid-year update on key indicators for Queensland's discrete Indigenous communities: incorporating the October – December 2010 quarter.

Brisbane: Queensland Government

Queensland Health (2011)

2011–2012 Queensland drug action plan.

Brisbane: Queensland Health

The 2011-2012 Queensland drug action plan builds on the longstanding partnerships between health, law enforcement and education sectors, to engage government, non-government organisations and the community in reducing the supply, the demand and the harms associated with drug misuse throughout Queensland.

It focuses on five priority areas:

  • alcohol-related violence and injury
  • smoking and heavy drinking
  • reducing harms for families
  • tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
  • pharmaceutical and illicit drugs.

Queensland Health abstract

Tobin CL, Moodie R, Livingstone C (2011)

A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia.

BMC Public Health; 11: 58

Retrieved 27 January 2011 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-11-58.pdf

Wenbin L, Chikritzhs T (2011)

Revealing the link between licensed outlets and violence: Counting venues versus measuring alcohol availability.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 30(5): 524-535

2010

Connors P, Bush R (2010)

'Back on Track' : an evaluation.

Brisbane: University of Queensland

D'Abbs P (2010)

Controlling 'rivers of grog': the challenge of alcohol problems in Australian Indigenous communities.

Contemporary Drug Problems; 37(3): 499-524

Drug and Alcohol Office (2010)

Halls Creek liquor restrictions interim report: June to August 2009.

Perth, WA: Western Australia Drug and Alcohol Office

Duncan B (2010)

Outback crusade: Indigenous licensing officer drives alcohol reform.

Of Substance; 8(1): 24-25

Gray D, Wilkes E (2010)

Reducing alcohol and other drug related harm.

Canberra: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse

This resource sheet provides an overview of approaches to reducing alcohol and other drug related harm amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Included is information on what is currently known about these approaches and what information needs to be developed in this area. This resource sheet was produced as part of a series by the Closing the gap clearinghouse to disseminate information which could be used to help develop solutions to 'close the gap'.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Kinnane S, Farringdon F, Henderson-Yates L, Parker H (2010)

Fitzroy Valley alcohol restriction report: an evaluation of the effects of alcohol restrictions in Fitzroy Crossing relating to measurable health and social outcomes, community perceptions and alcohol related behaviours after two years.

Perth: Drug and Alcohol Office

Kinnane S, Golson K, Henderson-Yates L, Melbourne J (2010)

Halls Creek alcohol restriction report December 2010: an evaluation of the effects of alcohol restrictions in Halls Creek relating to measurable health and social outcomes, community perceptions and alcohol related behaviours after twelve months.

Perth, WA: Drug and Alcohol Office, Western Australia

National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Conference (2010)

The way forward: resolutions from the Inaugural National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Conference.

Canberra: National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee

Nicholas R (2010)

An environmental scan on alcohol and other drug issues facing law enforcement in Australia 2010.

Hobart: National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund

Northern Territory Department of Justice (2010)

Proposed alcohol management plan for the regional area of Darwin and Palmerston.

Retrieved August 2010 from http://www.alcoholplannt.com.au/media/pdf/Darwin_and_Palmerston_AMP.pdf

Origin Consulting, Bowchung Consulting (2010)

Review of the alcohol and other drugs components of the Northern Territory emergency response - final report.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australia

Schineanu A, Velander F, Saggers S (2010)

Kalgoorlie alcohol action project intervention evaluation 2006-2009.

Perth, WA: National Drug Research Institute

Schineanu A, Velander F, Saggers S (2010)

"Don't wake up angry no more." The evaluation of the Norseman Voluntary Liquor Agreement.

Perth: National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology

Wilson M, Stearne A, Gray D, Saggers S (2010)

Review of the harmful use of alcohol amongst Indigenous Australians.

Perth, WA: Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

2009

Akesson G (2009)

Grog cut's mixed blessings.

Of Substance; 7(2): 23

Boffa J, Tilton E, Legge D, Genat B (2009)

Reducing the harm from alcohol, tobacco and obesity in Indigenous communities: key approaches and actions.

Canberra:

Chikritzhs TN, Dietze PM, Allsop SJ, Daube MM, Hall WD, Kypri K (2009)

The “alcopops” tax: heading in the right direction.

Medical Journal of Australia; 190(6): 294-295

Cooper-Stanbury M, Nargis S (2009)

Correlates of risky alcohol consumption in regional and remote Australia.

Paper presented at the Rural health: the place to be ... The 10th National Rural Health Conference. 17-20 May 2009, Cairns, Qld

Drug and Alcohol Office (WA) (2009)

Fitzroy Crossing liquor restriction October 2007 to September 2008 twelve month report.

Perth: Government of Western Australia

This report, compiled by the Drug and Alcohol Office of WA, provides statistical information regarding the first 12 months of takeaway alcohol restriction in Fitzroy Crossing. Information summarised in this report includes statistical information about police, health services, licensed venues, supermarkets, and regional sobering up centres. This report will be followed up by a comprehensive report by the University of Notre Dame which will include in-depth qualitative and quantitative data and analysis.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Kinnane S, Farringdon F, Henderson-Yates L, Parker H (2009)

Fitzroy Valley alcohol restriction report: An evaluation of the effects of a restriction on take-away alcohol relating to measurable health and social outcomes, community perceptions and behaviours after a 12 month period.

Perth: Drug and Alcohol Office (WA)

MacKeith S, Gray D, Chikritzhs TN (2009)

Review of Moving beyond the restrictions: the evaluation of the Alice Springs Alcohol Management Plan : a report prepared for the Alice Springs People's Alcohol Action Coalition.

Perth: National Drug Research Institute

Mentha R, Wakerman J (2009)

An evaluation of the Australian Football League Central Australian Responsible Alcohol Strategy 2005-07.

Health Promotion Journal of Australia; 20(3): 208-213

Midford R, Young D, Chikritzhs T, Playford D, Kite E, Pascal R (2009)

The effect of alcohol sales and advertising restrictions on a remote Australian community.

Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy; 17(1): 21-41

Morgan A, McAtamney A (2009)

Key issues in alcohol-related violence.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

Shanks H (2009)

Roebourne report - issues, current responses and strategies for consideration.

South Hedland, WA: Department of Indigenous Affairs, WA

Skov SJ (2009)

Alcohol taxation policy in Australia: public health imperatives for action: a statement by the Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

Medical Journal of Australia; 190(8): 437-439

The George Institute (2009)

Indigenous health experts reject MP's call for removal of alcohol restriction.

Retrieved 15 July 2009 from http://www.georgeinstitute.org.au/media-releases/indigenous-health-experts-reject-mps-call-for-removal-of-alcohol-restriction

Waldron T (2009)

Liquor restrictions for Pilbara community.

Perth: Minister Assisting the Minister for Health, Western Australia

Willis M (2009)

Policing substance abuse in Indigenous communities: report from a workshop held in Mildura, Victoria, 5–6 August 2008.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

This report documents the findings of a workshop held in Mildura that provided an opportunity to disseminate findings from the National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund to an audience of NSW and Victorian police involved in implementing and managing the policing response to substance abuse in Indigenous communities.

Police presented environmental scans from their respective jurisdictions. The objectives of the workshop included: establishing the key issues for police in relation to substance abuse in Indigenous communities; identifying differences in policing illicit drug use in Indigenous communities compared with other communities; and identifying where police may be able to improve their response to these issues. Key findings included: research and environmental scans shared at the workshop raised awareness of the emerging issue of illicit drug use; differences between urban, regional and remote communities in policing responses to illicit substance use; differences in police responses to urban Indigenous drug use highlighted the need for further research; and networking between operational police and staff from other areas (such as Aboriginal Community Liaison Officers) is likely to provide significant benefits and needs to be encouraged.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

2008

Alcohol Working Group (2008)

Preventing alcohol-related harm in Australia: a window of opportunity.

Canberra: National Preventative Health Taskforce

Clough AR, Kim San Lee K, Conigrave KM (2008)

Promising performance of a juvenile justice diversion programme in remote Aboriginal communities, Northern Territory, Australia.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 27(4): 433-438

Collins DJ, Lapsley HM (2008)

The avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Australia and the potential benefits of effective policies to reduce the social costs of alcohol.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing

Drug and Alcohol Office (WA) (2008)

Fitzroy Crossing liquor restriction: October to December 2007 interim report.

Perth: Drug and Alcohol Office (WA)

Gordon S (2008)

The Northern Territory emergency response: a reflection.

The Sydney Papers; 20(3): 35-54

Henderson-Yates L, Wagner S, Parker H, Yates D (2008)

Fitzroy Valley liquor restriction report: an evaluation of the effects of a six month restriction on take-away alcohol relating to measurable health and social benefits and community perceptions and behaviours.

Perth: Drug and Alcohol Office WA

This report presents the findings of an evaluation of the impact of a liquor license restriction introduced in Fitzroy Crossing in October 2007 by the Director of Liquor and Licensing. The report covers the period October 2007 to February 2008 and provides both qualitative and quantitative data. Findings show a reduction in domestic violence, drunken behaviour and a decrease in the requirement of medical treatment. Negative consequences have been the financial losses to some private businesses. Overall the findings show a positive impact with clear benefits for the families and residents of Fitzroy Crossing.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Joudo J (2008)

Responding to substance abuse and offending in Indigenous communities: review of diversion programs.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology

This report examines diversion programs currently available to both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders in Australia. This report is the first stage of a larger study evaluating the way that Australian Governments have sought to address Indigenous substance use and related offending. The report provides an overview of the type and extent of current diversion programs available and highlights the related issues and barriers to effective participation and completion for Indigenous offenders. The research for this report included literature research and consultations in all States and Territories. Findings suggest that is is necessary to consider the drug use problems specific to Indigenous offenders, and that programs should be expanded to include substances such as alcohol and inhalants.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Major C (2008)

From chronic to acute: the emergency response in the Northern Territory.

Of Substance; 6(1): 10-12

Margolis SA, Ypinazar VA, Muller R (2008)

The impact of supply reduction through alcohol management plans on serious injury in remote Indigenous communities in remote Australia: a ten-year analysis using data from the Royal Flying Doctor Service.

Alcohol and Alcoholism; 43(1): 104-110

Public Health Advocacy Institute of WA (PHAIWA) (2008)

Public Health Advocacy Institute of WA: alcohol policy - where next?.

Perth: Public Health Advocacy Institute of WA (PHAIWA)

Roche AM, Pidd K, Bywood P, Duraisingam P, Steenson T, Freeman T, Nicholas R (2008)

Drug testing in schools: evidence, impacts and alternatives.

Canberra: Australian National Council on Drugs

Senior K, Chenhall R (2008)

Lukumbat Marawana: a changing pattern of drug use by youth in a remote Aboriginal community.

Australian Journal of Rural Health; 16(2): 75-79

Weatherburn DJ (2008)

The role of drug and alcohol policy in reducing Indigenous over-representation in prison.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 27(1): 91-94

 
Last updated: 18 August 2014
 
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